Pervasive 2004

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Download the slide set of all hot spot and video paper presentations as a pdf file.

 H01: Microservices: A Lightweight Web Service Infrastructure for Mobile Devices
   Nicholas Nicoloudis, I Made (Dennis) Pratistha  
  This paper presents an infrastructure that provides the capability of hosting web services from mobile devices. The architecture consists of two parts: a scaled-down web service specification and a compact web server that is capable of hosting the service. This capability offers the benefits of delivering portable software service and opens new possibilities in the types of applications that can be made available to mobile devices.
 H02: A Ubiquitous System for Medication Monitoring
   Kenneth Fishkin, Min Wang, Gaetano Borriello  
  Ubiquitous systems to monitor home health practice have been of great recent interest. In this paper, we focus on those which monitor home medication taking. We conducted a study to derive user needs and settings. Informed by that study, a prototype system was developed. It is designed to be functional, flexible, easy to configure, and a good fit with existing contexts of use. Two novel devices are employed: an RFID reader combined with a digital scale to report when (and how many) pills were taken, and an augmented blister pak. An experiment was conducted to test the accuracy and reliability of the system. The system is shown to be highly accurate.
 H03: Context Aware Application of Semantic Web in Personified Home
   Xuhui Chen, Yimin Wang, Yibin Hou  
  Recently, a widespread interest has emerged in using ontology on the Web. Resource Description Framework Schema (RDFS) is a basic tool that enables users to define vocabulary, structure and constraints for expressing Meta data about Web resources. Most of webs only have been used as the document description, but they cannot be used to describe control information. In this paper, we studied context aware application in Personified Home Service System extend the human interaction with Semantic Web to describe the device interface. The semantic Webs not only can be used to browse but also can enable machines to comprehend people’s thoughts by semantic documents, not just by human speech and writings. The human-computer interaction (HCI) interface is distributed and ubiquitous, Sensor, TV, refrigerator etc. could be used as interactive device not only Mouse and CRT. RDF Schema describe them to control TV, Refrigerator, Air-condition and so on. The Semantic Webs will bring structure to the meaningful content of Web pages, creating an environment where software agents roaming from page to page can readily carry out sophisticated tasks for users. For extensive intelligence in the system, the Semantic Web can assist the evolution of human knowledge as a whole. We analyze user’s daily record, predict the user's interest, and provide the heuristic genetic algorithms to implement a natural, kindly and vivid home service system.
 H04: A Bayesian Approach for Dealing with Uncertain Contexts
   Tao Gu, Hung Keng Pung, Da Qing Zhang  
  Abstract Building of context-aware applications in pervasive computing environments faces the difficult problem of dealing with uncertain context information. In this paper, we present a novel approach for modeling and reasoning about uncertain contexts. We propose a probability extension to our ontology-based model for representing uncertainty; and use Bayesian networks to reason about uncertainty. In addition, the supports of probabilistic markups and Bayesian networks have been incorporated into our context-aware middleware system to enable the building of context-aware services by using various uncertain contexts. We also present our experiences and discussions.
 H05: Targeted Sound Distribution with Embedded IP Based Loudspeaker Devices
   Philipp Hünerberg, Peter Gober    
  In this note we argue for distributing sound for public address and similar systems over IP. Aside from potential cost benefits (arising e. g. from reusing LAN infrastructure), this allows to address each loudspeaker individually, which enables one to realize more targeted, personalized messages. We describe a hard- and software design of low-cost embedded microphone and loudspeaker devices, which can be used to realize such a system. We elaborate on some technical details that are crucial for a commercial deployment. IP based sound distribution systems enable a number of interesting new applications, ranging from targeted person calls on airports to emergency announcement systems, which let one address each room individually.
 H06: Spoken Interaction in Intelligent Environments: A Working System
   Germán Montoro, Xavier Alamán, Pablo A. Haya  
  Intelligent environments are ubiquitous computing systems that react to and interact with their inhabitants. They adapt to their necessities, assisting them in their every day life. We present a real intelligent environment that supports spoken interaction with its users. The spoken dialogue interface is automatically created according to the environment and the interpretation and generation vary depending on the physical environment context.
 H07: Performance Evaluation Simulation System for MANET Routing Protocols for E-Commerce Hot Spots
   Khaled E. A. Negm, Wael Adi  
  In wireless ad-hoc networks it is necessary that mobile hosts operate as routers in order to maintain the information about connectivity. However, with the presence of high mobility and low signal/interference ratio (SIR), traditional routing schemes for wired networks are not appropriate, as they lack the ability to quickly reflect the changing topology, or cause excessive overhead, concerning the network performance. Three main problems we face for routing of 802.11x networks these are route discovery, route maintenance and optimization. In this research we develop a simulation system which simulates level 0 and level 1 layers, and benchmarks four different widely used distributed routing models. The system also allows us to suggest the best routing model to implement based on the dynamical mobility of the peers in terms of their speed which imply the rapid change of the network topology. In addition, we implemented a novel idea to overcome routing difficulties by introducing a second broadcast message while running the routing to afford immediate update, which noticeably decreased the probability of losing packets.
 H08: A New Approach to Distributed Context-aware Computing
   Paul Swoboda, John Plaice  
  We present the aether, a tree-structured, pervasive and active distributed context that is directly useable as an efficient medium for intensional computing An aether allows participants to register over a network at arbitrary nodes in the context and listen to operations which selectively modify the context. Using a distributed model similar to an IRC channel, context-sensitive software components can engage in contextual discussion, affecting their combined runtime semantics. Discussion is given on the nature of the context, as well as the means of transmission and potential applications.
 H09: Towards Situation-Aware Affordances: An Experimental Study
   Stavros Antifakos, Florian Michahelles, Bernt Schiele  
  In this paper we present and evaluate a system that extends the idea of classic affordances to situation-aware affordances by presenting small amounts of instructions at the right time and at the right place. We evaluate this concept using the example of a standard flatpack wardrobe extended with light emitting diodes (LED's) on each board. These LED's display the assembly instructions in a proactive way by adapting the information with each movement the user makes. The experiment presented compares the use of paper instructions with the proposed LED based instructions. As result, LED's proved sufficient to even produce a measurable time gain. To test intuitivity and usability of the instructions a comparison between instructions in different modalities is carried out.
 H10: Is TV a Suitable Device for Smart Home Applications?
   Martin Maguire  
  With the growth of digital TV across Europe, the television has the potential to become the basis for user interaction and control of the home system. This paper considers the pros and cons of basing home systems on the TV and presents some survey results concerning user needs for DTV services.
 H11: Adaptive, Planning Based, Web Service Composition for Context Awareness
   Maja Vukovic, Peter Robinson  
  The increasing complexity required for context awareness makes such applications difficult to write and adapt. In this paper, we present an architecture for building context aware applications as dynamically composed sequences of calls to fine granularity Web services, addressing the reactive behavior of pervasive environments. Different service compositions of such sequences will result from different contexts such as: resources available, time constraints, user requirements and profile, location, devices available and bandwidth. We implement and discuss a specific context aware dynamic service composition problem using the SHOP2 planning algorithm and the BPEL4WS Web service composition technology.
 H12: Collaborative Capturing and Interpretation of Experiences
   Yasuyuki Sumi, Sadanori Ito, Tetsuya Matsuguchi, Sidney Fels, Kenji Mase  
  This paper proposes a notion of interaction corpus, a captured collection of human behaviors and interactions among humans and artifacts. Digital multimedia and ubiquitous sensor technologies create a venue to capture and store interactions that are automatically annotated. A very large-scale accumulated corpus provides an important infrastructure for a future digital society for both humans and computers to understand verbal/non-verbal mechanisms of human interactions. The interaction corpus can also be used as a well-structured stored experience, which is shared with other people for communication and creation of further experiences. Our approach employs wearable and ubiquitous sensors, such as video cameras, microphones, and tracking tags, to capture all of the events from multiple viewpoints simultaneously. We demonstrate an application of generating a video-based experience summary that is reconfigured automatically from the interaction corpus.
 H13: An IP-based Bluetooth Multi-hop Network for Inhouse Communication
   Markus Augel, Wolfgang Arne Heidrich, Rudi Knorr  
  This paper presents self organization, routing and handover aspects of a newly developed IP-based Bluetooth multi-hop network to be used for inhouse communication. To increase througput a fundamental distinction between infrastructure devices and user devices is made in the network. Dedicated devices equipped with two Bluetooth modules are used as forwarding nodes and serve as a stationary infrastructure for mobile end devices.
 H14: Using Camera-Equipped Mobile Phones for Interacting with Real-World Objects
   Michael Rohs, Beat Gfeller  
  The idea described in this paper is to use the built-in cameras of consumer mobile phones as sensors for 2-dimensional visual codes. Such codes can be attached to physical objects in order to trigger object-related information and functionality. They are also suitable for display on electronic screens. The proposed visual code system allows the simultaneous detection of multiple codes, introduces a position-independent coordinate system, and provides the phone's orientation as a parameter. The ability to detect objects in the user's vicinity offers a natural way of interaction and strengthens the role of mobile phones in a large number of application scenarios. We describe the hardware requirements, the design of a suitable visual code, a lightweight recognition algorithm, and present some example applications.
 H15: A Visual Marker Using Computer Displays for Real Space Applications
   Yasue Kishino, Masahiko Tsukamoto, Yutaka Sakane, Shojiro Nishio  
  In order to construct augmented reality applications, it is necessary to identify the concise location and the direction of user's view in which virtual objects are composed according to the information. Image-based approaches are promising for this purpose since images taken by a camera can provide the direct mapping from the positions of location markers in the camera images to the positions of the virtual objects to be composed. In this paper, we propose a new location marking method, called VCC (visual computer communication), which are more intelligent than previous ones, using computer displays to send information. In our method, a marker in a matrix shape keeps blinking to provide both coordinate information and attached information such as an address or a URL.
 H16: Talking Assistant Headset: A Smart Digital Identity for Ubiquitous Computing
   Erwin Aitenbichler, Jussi Kangasharju, Max Mühlhäuser  
  A predominant issue in a ubiquitous computing world is that of future personal devices in the post-PC era. In this paper we present the Talking Assistant (TA), a prototype device we have developed to serve as a personal device. The main function of the Talking Assistant is to serve as the user's digital identity. In addition, the TA features local processing and storage, wireless networking capabilities, and a set of sensors. We present the rationale behind developing the TA and discuss possible use case scenarios from the real world.
 H17: Fundamentals of Ubiquitous Tracking
   Martin Wagner, Asa MacWilliams, Martin Bauer, Gudrun Klinker, Joseph Newman, Thomas Pintaric, Dieter Schmalstieg  
  Ubiquitous Computing (Ubicomp) environments require detailed, coherent and up-to-date spatial models of the world. However, current tracking technologies are limited in their range and operating environments. To extend the scope of Ubicomp applications, it will be necessary to combine heterogeneous tracking and sensor technologies dynamically, aggregating their data and balancing their trade-offs. In this paper, we propose a formal framework, called Ubiquitous Tracking, which uses a graph-based model of spatial relationships to build dynamically extendible networks of trackers with high-precision, low-latency requirements. The framework is powerful, allowing us to model existing complex tracking setups; extensible, accommodating new trackers, filtering schemes and optimisation criteria; and efficient, allowing an effective implementation within existing systems.
 H18: The Concepts of an End-User-Enabling Architecture for Ubiquitous Computing
   Irene Mavrommati, Achilles Kameas  
  This paper describes the set of concepts that underlie the "Plug-Synapse" model, which supports end users in composing and configuring ubiquitous computing applications. The technology that implements the model is briefly presented; all have been developed in the course of research during the e-Gadgets (IST-FET) project.
 H19: A Mountaineering Supporting System
   Yukimune Kuroki, Sachiyo Yoshitaki, Yutaka Sakane, Yoichi Takebayashi  
  We describe our ongoing ubiquitous computing projects based on Multimodal Knowledge Creation in learning environments. We focus on the technologies of sensing and understanding to create and interact with multimodal knowledge contents. The multimodal knowledge contents consist of multimedia such as video and audio, and knowledge media such as text and know-how. We have beeen working for several lerning domains, including high school education on computer playing in computer science and physics, know-how of playing "Karate", assistance in cycling, supporting mountaineering, and know-how of playing musical instruments We are envisioning that the rich and useful multimodal knowledge contents can enhance and activate not only people and societies but also industries and buisinesses. In this paper, we describe mountaineering supporting system.
 H20: Making Use of Serendipity: A New Direction for Pervasive Computing from a Sociological View
   Chao-Ming Teng, Hao-Hua Chu, Jane Yung-Jen Hsu  
  Everyday, a person can have numerous opportunities to connect with strangers or acquaintances around you. In this paper, we demonstrate how pervasive computing can help a person connect with others by initiating communication, and how (s)he can take advantage of these connections. We propose a new idea, the MyAura and the MobiSpace, that construct a future mobile information space based on ad hoc collaborative networks. From a sociological perspective, we investigate relevant theories in the fields of sociology and social psychology. We discuss how these theories can help us formulate the mobile applications for social interaction and collaboration. Integrating the findings, we propose the SUIC model that can be viewed as a basis for future mobile application development. In addition, we discuss what challenges that new applications bring to the underlying system. Our work pioneer the application of pervasive computing to social interaction and initiation, and provide the research community a new direction for further mobile application development.
 H21: Pervasive Computing and Proactive Agriculture
   Richard Beckwith, Dan Teibel, Pat Bowen  
  This paper describes the application and design of a sensor network in the context of proactive ag-riculture. This describes the current system of software and hardware, some brief results, as well as an indication of the direction we believe the field must take in the coming years.
 H22: Laser Pointers as Interaction Devices for Collaborative Pervasive Computing
   Andriy Pavlovych Wolfgang Stuerzlinger  
  We present a system that supports collaborative interactions for arbitrary environments. The system uses laser pointers as interaction devices and employs a video camera to detect where each laser pointer is pointing. Time-division multiplexing together with a wireless link affords discrimination between laser pointer dots belonging to different pointers. Safety issues with laser pointers are addressed with a new technique. We also discuss how new users can be dynamically added and removed from the system.
 H23: Context-Aware Queries Using Query By Browsing and Chiromancer
   Stavros Polyviou, Paraskevas Evripidou, George Samaras  
  In this paper we present Chiromancer, a relationally complete visual query language for the Palm handheld platform, based on the Query by Browsing paradigm. We discuss the suitability of the relational model as the description model of all aspects of a pervasive environment, and hence the suitability of Chiromancer as a generic access and application development tool for such an environment. We briefly introduce the QBB paradigm and an overview of the Chiromancer design. We demonstrate the context-awareness aspects of our proposal by examining the implementation of some examples from the research literature using Chiromancer. Finally, we provide a conclusion as well as some suggestions for future work.
 H24: A Mixed Reality based Training Application for an Oil Refinery
   Werner Hartmann, Jürgen Zauner, Michael Haller  
  Working within oil refineries is a very responsible task that requires highly trained and well-educated personnel. They need both a good theoretical knowledge about the processes that place within the vessels and tanks of the refinery and also a very good practical hands-on knowledge about the different devices and their interdependencies. Mixed Reality techniques are used to present such location specific information right on the spot. This combines the advantages of conventional classroom training and on-site inspections, because the trainee has on the one hand the experience of the real plant context and on the other hand access to all information that is available in the classroom
 H25: Occlusion Detection for Front-Projected Interactive Displays
   Maria Nadia Hilario, Jeremy Cooperstock  
  Advances in projector-camera technology allow for the transformation of virtually any surface into a display screen, leading to increased opportunities for interactive ubiquitous displays and mixed reality environments. While rear-projection environments are often prohibitively space-consuming, front-projection display systems suffer from occlusions. When a user interacts with the display or inadvertently blocks the projector, distortions appear in the projected image and shadows are cast on the display surface. However, sufficient knowledge of these occlusions allows for a corrected projection display in which overlapping projectors can fill in the occluded region, thereby producing an apparently unoccluded display. As a starting point to this objective, an occlusion detection system for a front projection display environment is presented. The approach is based on a camera-projector color calibration algorithm that estimates the RGB camera response to projected colors, allowing for predicted camera images to be generated for each projected scene. Pixel-wise color differencing between observed and predicted camera images is then employed to locate occluded display regions.
 H26: Context-aware Computing Using a Shared Contextual Information Service
   Nancy Miller, Glenn Judd, Urs Hengartner, Fabien Gandon, Peter Steenkiste, I-Heng Meng, Ming-Whei Feng, Norman Sadeh  
  The Aura ubiquitous computing project is investigating how we can reduce user distractions by having applications automatically adapt to the user's context. Context-aware applications rely on a shared service, the Contextual Information Service, to obtain context information. In this paper we describe our experience in implementing four very different applications using the CIS and in porting the applications to a different environment. One of the services also integrates technologies developed by a sister project that focuses on using the Semantic Web to support context awareness and privacy.
 H27: A Design of The Ubiquitous Karate School for Learning Mind and Body Interaction
   Yutaka Sakane, Masami Takahata, Naofumi Ohtani, Yukimune Kuroki, Yoichi Takebayashi  
  We describe a design of the ubiquitous karate school in which we can experience and learn the profundities of karate. We propose a new karate model which represents both physical and mental structures of karate based on the six-level model of Minsky's emotion machine. In order to collect the actions and reactions of the players in a match, we have developed wearable motion devices with an acceleration sensor and an angular velocity sensor. We have acquired knowledge about the motions and minds of the players in a match such as "transfer of power" and "the mechanism of changes of the players intentions" through analyzing sensor data and using the karate model.
 H28: The Smart Box Application Model
   Matthias Lampe, Christian Flörkemeier  
  This paper proposes the usage of a software framework, based on the Smart Box application model, for the development of application or appliances of the Smart Box application domain. This class of ubiquitous computing applications can be described as automatic content monitoring applications using Auto-ID technologies such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). The Smart Box application model is based on the concepts of location and object to represent a kind of a box and the items and persons that are related to the box. States defined through conditions abstract from the content of the box and limit notification of the application to exceptional cases. Implementing the model and framework we could show that the model is adequate to describe the Smart Box application domain and that the framework decreases the development effort of Smart Box applications.
 H29: A Computationally Enhanced Play Board for Group Interaction
   Orit Shaer, Babak Ziraknejad, Ken Camarata, Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Mark D. Gross  
  People Pretzel is a computationally enhanced game board aims to encourage informal social interaction in public spaces. The People Pretzel uses sound, light and visual images to entice community members to participate in a playful group interaction. To play, the players are required to collaborate, using their bodies as playing pieces. This physical interaction is computationally mediated and augmented to produce an improvisational multimedia performance for the enjoyment of players and spectators alike.
 H30: The Uber-Badge - A Versatile Platform at the Juncture Between Wearable and Social Computing
   Matthew Laibowitz, Joseph A. Paradiso  
  We present the design of a new badge platform for facilitating interaction in large groups of people. We have built this device to be very flexible in order to host a wide variety of interactions in the areas where wearable and social computing converge, from game environments to meetings and conventions. This badge has both RF and IR communication, a 5x9 LED display capable of presenting graphics and scrolling text that users in the vicinity can read, an onboard microphone for 12-bit audio sampling, a 12-bit audio output, a pager motor vibrator for vibratory feedback, 3 onboard processors, capacity for up to 256 MB of flash memory, provisions for connecting LCD displays, and connectors that mate into the Responsive Environments Group's Stack Sensor platform, allowing a variety of different sensors to be integrated. We describe several applications now being developed for this badge at the MIT Media Laboratory, and touch on how it was used in a multiplayer, augmented reality urban adventure hunt game in Manhattan in the summer of 2003.
 H31: Improving the Reality Perception of Visually Impaired through Pervasive Computing
   Vlad Coroama, Tarik Kapic, Felix Röthenbacher  
  The visually impaired experience serious difficulties in leading an independent life, due to their reduced perception of the environment. However, we believe that ubiquitous computing can significantly improve the perception of the surrounding reality for the blind and visually impaired. In this paper we describe the Chatty Environment, a system that addresses this problem and has been developed after a series of interviews with potential users. The system, which reveals the surroundings to the user by speech output, is usable in both indoor and outdoor contexts.
Pervasive 2004      April 18-23      Linz / Vienna, Austria      Back to Top